Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. Rosa Parks Day is an American holiday celebrated on her birthday in the U.S. states of California and Missouri. In Ohio and Oregon, it is celebrated on December 1, the day of her arrest.
On December 1, 1955, Ms Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man who had boarded the bus after her. She was arrested and found guilty on December 5 and fined $10 plus a court cost of $4, but she appealed.
Rosa Parks’ action gained notoriety leading to the Montgomery bus boycott. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955 to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v Gayle led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
The 381-day boycott almost bankrupted the bus company and effectively made segregation in buses unconstitutional and illegal.